Apples can be propagated both by seed and through cuttings.
However, growing apples from seed does not result in the same crop as the parent but grafts retain their properties and taste just as the parent plant. It’s recommended to use grafted apple seedlings to establish your apple orchard.
There are three important things to consider in while growing apple; climatic conditions, soil properties and choice of variety. Apples require cold conditions to be productive. Areas with average temperature range of 10-18 Degrees Celsius are good for apple.
Fertile and well drained soils are necessary to obtain a good crop of an apple plant. It is also important to feed your apple plant as it grows. Apples tolerate pH range of 6.0-7.0 but prefer a pH range of 6.5-6.8. There are over 7500 apple varieties in the world but not all can grow in Kenya and Uganda.
In Kenya, Apples thrives well in the highland areas surrounding Mount Kenya. The areas currently under apple production in Kenya are Kiambu, Kitale and Nandi.
In Uganda, apples are grown in high altitude areas of between 1800m—3000m in the Mt Elgon region, highlands of Kigezi and Kabale. In the Mt. Elgon region, apples can grow in the districts of Mbale, Bulambuli, Kapchorwa, Kween, Manafwa, Bukwo, Sironko and Bududa.
Apple varieties adapted to a particular area should be planted in that area. In Mt. Elgon area, varieties Anna, Golden dorset and Winter banana are recommended. In Kenya, the most common varieties are disease resistant varieties which include, Enterprise, Liberty, Gold rush, Jona free, Pristine, and William Pride which are resistant to Apple scab and fire blight.
It is advisable for a farmer to always consider planting a pollinator variety in your apple orchard since most apple varieties are self-sterile. Anna and Golden dorset have a matching flowering pattern and make a good combination in an orchard. Anna, Golden dorset and Winter banana also make a combine well for a good crop.
Begin land preparation by removing all vegetative matter, trees and stumps in the field. Dig one meter by one meter by one meter pits one month before planting and use a basin of farm yard manure mix with top soil and fill in each pit immediately after pitting.
Plant the seedling leaving the graft union three inches or three figures above the ground. Arrange your plants in a rectangular or square layout spaced at 4mx3m or 3mx3m. This will give you some space to intercrop. However, on steep slopes, make terraces for each line of apple plants.
Remove all sprouts below the graft union and don’t allow the rootstock to grow at any time. This will suppress the plant (scion) and may result in scion abortion. Weed your apple orchard regularly either using strip or ring weeding. Do clear the orchard of all vegetation to reduce soil erosion.
Intercrop your orchard with annuals such as beans, cow peas and soya beans. This will provide you economic benefits as you wait for the apples to grow and become productive which can take up to 3-4 years.
Remove all branches from ground to 0.5m including those below and above the graft union. And allow only a single plant at this point. Watch out for pests (aphids, mites, rodents, ants, leaf miners) and diseases (powdery mildew, Scab – dark or black spots on leaves, and fire blight – burnt leaves.
According to Knoema.com, an online US database, Kenya produced 623 tonnes of apples inn 2016, an increase of 5.77 per cent from the previous year.
The production of apples in Kenya however, has dropped over the last decade from 4,554 tonnes in 2005.