Cross-post from Trust AlertNet Climate blog.
For millions of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and other parts of the developing world, deciding between growing crops and rearing animals has never been up for discussion. Instead farmers here mix it up, as keeping both livestock and crops on the farm provide milk for the family, meat and vegetables on the table and crops to sell on the market.
A recent perspective piece published in Nature Climate Change by researchers Philip Thornton and Mario Herrero suggests that we still know very little about how climate change will impact these mixed farms and especially the interactions between crops and livestock. This is alarming as mixed farming systems form the backbone of smallholder production in developing countries, producing over 90% of the world’s milk supply and 80% of the meat from ruminants.
It is clear to see how important these systems are to millions of people, contributing heavily to livelihoods and incomes, and even the globe’s food supply. Making sure mixed farmers know they way forward for effective climate adaptation and resilience building is crucial.
Available climate adaptation options
There are a number of climate-smart farming options that support climate adaptation, mitigation and improve food security that mixed farmers can pick up.
These options use the fact that there are both livestock and crops grown on the farm and how these can interplay to strengthen climate resilience.
A good example, and perhaps the most obvious one, is using manure as a fertilizer and nutritious crop residues as fodder. Making the most of these farm spillovers can help boost both yields and animal growth and in turn improve the household’s ability to deal with climate impacts. Focusing on high-quality fodder, for example specific legume species, can also help reduce methane emissions from livestock, adding some co-mitigation benefits.
Although mixed systems are already taking the lead in diversification, farmers can by adding additional crops or introducing new animals such as ducks or fish further increase incomes and sources of nutrition. By managing a range of farm- and income-generating activities, farmers have the potential to create a more food secure household.
Livestock can also provide a buffer against losses during drought or heavy rainfall. For example, selling a chicken or goat can help a family overcome a poor grain harvest. By re-investing the income in crops better suited for an altered climate or introducing cross-bred animals that can withstand a hotter and more dry climate, mixed farmers can get better equipped to keep climate impacts at bay.
Diversified farms, who engage in both crop production and animal rearing, are more food secure year round. Photo: C. Schubert (CCAFS)