French Beans Farming In Kenya has witnessed remarkable growth and development over the years, becoming a cornerstone of the country’s horticultural industry. This high-value crop, scientifically known as Phaseolus vulgaris and locally as Mishiri, has garnered significant attention from both smallholder farmers and commercial producers alike. Renowned for its nutritional value, market demand, and adaptability to diverse agro-climatic zones, French beans have become a symbol of agricultural innovation and economic potential in Kenya.

French Beans Farming In Kenya Complete Cultivation Guide

French beans are cultivated for their pods and seeds. It is a dominating crop in the export market. In Kenya, frenchbeans are mostly grown in warm-wet regions like kajiado, Thika, Murang’a, Machakos, Uasin Gishu, Western Kenya, Kisumu, Kirinyaga, Nyeri Nakuru and Naivasha. With irrigation, French beans can be grown throughout the year. French beans will grow between 45 to 75 days, making them a good crop for farmers seeking short production cycles.

What Is Making Farmers Shift To French Beans Farming In Kenya?

The following are some of the factors for the preference for French beans produce in Kenya.

The first lure is insight on the value addition of intercropping French beans with maize. Farmers in the Rift Valley and Western Kenya have caught on with the incentive to grow the cash crop to bolster their existing maize fields.

The farmers cultivate the French Beans between maize at least two seasons for every single six-month season of maize. This is because the crop is ready for harvest in less than two months after planting. The family growers also prefer the green beans because they can grow well under low-intensity irrigation as they do not require as much overhead water as maize plantations.

Another lure into French bean farming in Kenya are the attractive market prices. The improved organic means of growth and timely harvest helps family growers make KSH 50 – 100 per kilo of French beans. The price fluctuates throughout the season with the peak market season of October through May being the most attractive.

Low acreage with high returns is another reason for the enduring popularity of French beans in new cultivation belts. While a small patch of land can generate weekly returns of KSH 30,000, an acre’s worth has brought many family growers between KSH 180,000 to KSH 250,000 per season. A small portion of land can yield weekly harvests that farmers can reap two times a week with ready direct exports or via middlemen.

The other factor that has contributed to the rise of the French beans value chain in new areas is the accessibility of high quality seeds. Though costly at KSH 12,500, a packet of certified seeds provides resistance against common pests and hence reduces the need for harsh chemicals. This in turn helps the exporters to meet market specifications of low residual levels.

Varieties Of French Beans In Kenya

French beans in Kenya have several notable varieties, each with distinct characteristics tailored to meet specific market demands and growing conditions. These varieties have been developed to address factors such as taste, appearance, disease resistance, and adaptability. Here are some of the prominent French beans varieties in Kenya, along with their key characteristics and production considerations:

  1. Mavuno F1: This variety is renowned for its uniformity, high yields, and disease resistance. Mavuno F1 produces straight, slender, and dark green pods that are well-suited for both local and export markets. Its adaptability to varying agro-climatic conditions makes it a preferred choice for many Kenyan farmers.
  2. Amy F1: Amy F1 is valued for its early maturity and excellent pod quality. The variety produces long, slim, and tender pods with a vibrant green color. It is a popular choice for export due to its uniformity and attractive appearance.
  3. Pencil Pod (Kenya Improved): This variety is distinguished by its slender, pencil-like pods that are tender and flavorful. Pencil Pod French beans are well-suited for local markets and home consumption. They are known for their excellent taste and are often used in culinary dishes.
  4. Saxa F1: Saxa F1 is prized for its high yields and disease resistance, particularly against common bean diseases. It produces straight, fleshy pods that are uniform and visually appealing.
  5. Paulista (Helda) F1: This variety is characterized by its long, straight, and slender pods that are rich in flavor. Paulista F1 is adaptable to varying agro-climatic conditions and is favored for its resistance to common bean diseases. It is well-suited for both local consumption and export markets.
  6. Top Crop F1: Known for its reliability and versatility, Top Crop F1 produces uniform, long, and straight pods. This variety is suitable for both fresh consumption and processing. Top Crop F1 offers good disease resistance.

It’s important to note that actual yields per acre can vary widely based on factors such as soil quality, climate, management practices, and disease control. Successful cultivation of French beans farming in Kenya requires careful attention to planting density, proper irrigation, pest and disease management, and post-harvest handling.

Ecological requirements on french beans farming in Kenya

French beans farming in Kenya requires specific ecological conditions to ensure optimal growth, yield, and quality of the crop. These ecological requirements encompass a range of factors, including climate, soil, and water management.

1. Suitable Climate For French Beans Farming In Kenya

French beans are a warm-season crop that thrives in tropical and subtropical climates. Key climate factors for successful French beans farming include:

  • Temperature: French beans require temperatures between 18°C and 27°C (64°F to 81°F) for optimal growth. They are sensitive to frost and cold temperatures, so planting should be timed to avoid the coldest periods.
  • Sunlight: Adequate sunlight is essential for photosynthesis and pod development. French beans thrive in full sun, receiving at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight daily.

2. Soil Requirements On French Beans Farming In Kenya

The right soil conditions are crucial for French beans cultivation. The following soil characteristics are important:

  • Texture: Well-drained sandy loam to loam soils are ideal for French beans. These soil types provide good aeration and water drainage, preventing waterlogging that can lead to root rot.
  • pH Level: French beans prefer slightly acidic to neutral soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. Soil pH influences nutrient availability and can affect plant health and growth.
  • Fertility: Soil fertility is important for high yields. Prior to planting, a soil test is recommended to determine nutrient levels. Adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as micronutrients, are crucial for optimal growth.

3. Water Management On French Beans Farming In Kenya:

Proper irrigation is essential for French beans farming, as the crop requires consistent moisture for uniform growth and pod development. Key considerations include:

  • Irrigation Method: Drip irrigation is often recommended for French beans, as it provides precise control over water application and reduces the risk of foliar diseases.
  • Watering Frequency: The crop should receive regular, evenly distributed water. Water stress during flowering and pod development can lead to reduced yields and pod quality.
  • Avoid Waterlogging: Adequate drainage is important to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to root diseases and reduced plant health.
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4. Altitude and Agro-Ecological Zones On French Beans Farming In Kenya

French beans can be cultivated at different altitudes and agro-ecological zones within Kenya. Different varieties may be suitable for specific zones, so farmers should select varieties that match the local conditions.

French Beans Planting Season In Kenya

Planting should be scheduled so that most of the crop is ready between October to mid December and from mid-January to end of May. From mid December to mid January the demand is low because of the holidays.

french beans farming in kenya 2023
Credit Image: © Ric Francis

In warm areas, beans take 55-60 days from planting to first picking, hence, plant from mid­-August to mid-October, then plant again early in December.  

Land preparation on french beans farming in Kenya

French beans are sown directly into the seed bed. The land should be ploughed and harrowed properly just before planting

Planting French Beans In Kenya

  • The farmers should prepare land early enough to allow weeds to dry and decompose before planting.

  • Propagation of French beans is by seeds directly sown into the field.

  • Use certified seeds from reputable seed suppliers.

  • The farmer should plant french beans at the onset of the rains if production is rain-fed.

Spacing French Beans 

Single rows 30 x 15 (1 seed per hole) or double rows 60 x 30 cm may be used. The spacing will depend on the variety, soil fertility, water availability as well as climate. It is advisable to plant in blocks of about 4 rows separated by a path of about 50 cm. The seed rate required is, 25-60kg/ha (10-24kg/acre) of certified seeds depending on the variety.

Fertilizer and manure application on french beans farming in Kenya

  • Apply 200 kg/ha (80kg/acre) DAP along the rows before planting. Contact between fertilizer and seed should be avoided by mixing the fertilizer thoroughly with the soil in the planting furrow.Apply 150-kg/ha (60kg/acre) Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), as a top dressing in a split application. First split is applied when 2-3 leaves appear and the second at the beginning of flowering.
  • Excessive nitrogen should be avoided as it may promote vigorous vegetative growth at the expense of pod production.
  • Foliar feeds are recommended to boost crop development and production. The choice of the fertilizer depends on the fertility of the soil and variety requirements.
  • Use of farmyard manure is also recommended especially where soils are low in organic matter e.g. on the heavy clay and sandy soils. It should be applied in planting furrow and worked into soil before planting at the rate of 10 tons/ha

Note1 kg of seed requires 4-8 kg of fertilizer depending on the variety and soil conditions.

Crop rotation

This practice is recommended to avoid pest and disease build up. Rotation is mainly done with cassava, maize, sorghum or any other non leguminaceae family member crop.

Weed control

  • Timely and thorough weeding is absolutely essential. The first weeding should be done 2-3 weeks after emergence followed by a second weeding 2-3 weeks later.Care should be taken to avoid damaging the shallow roots especially during the first weeding.
  • The crop should not be weeded at flowering time and when the field is wet to avoid flower shedding, spread of diseases and soil compaction. Use of herbicides may be economically feasible for the commercial French beans grower. Pre-emergence herbicides can be used.

Irrigation

  • Constant supply of water is very essential because soil moisture affects yield, uniformity and quality of French beans.
  • Water stress during flowering and podding causes flower abortion and curved pods leading to reduced yields.
  • French beans are also very sensitive to waterlogged conditions. Therefore, where the soils are not well drained such as the black cotton soils, it is advisable to grow them on ridges. In such soils, furrow irrigation with the beans planted on the ridges is a better practice than the common system of basin irrigation. Either furrow or an overhead system of irrigation may be used.

The irrigation regime below is based on crop water requirement at various stages of growth as well as the soil and weather conditions. The recommendation is as follows:

  1. Planting to 10 days (Post emergence) apply 35 mm per week
  2. 10 days Post emergence to flowering blooms apply 50 mm per week
  3. At Podding stage apply 35 mm per week.

Supporting French beans

The climbing variety which grows to about 1.8m (6ft) high needs to be supported. This variety requires trellises, poles, or other means of support at least 200cm (8ft) high.

French Beans Yield Per Acre

The yield per acre for French beans in Kenya can vary widely based on several factors, including the variety grown, agro-climatic conditions, soil quality, management practices, and disease control. On average, French beans have the potential to yield between 4,800 to 8,500 kilograms per acre in Kenya. However, it’s important to note that actual yields can fall within this range and may even exceed it under optimal conditions.

Cost of French Beans Production and Expected Profits Per Acre

Expenses: Please note that these are approximate values and can vary based on location, farming practices, input costs, and other factors:

1. Seeds:

  • Cost of quality French beans seeds: 10,000 – 15,000 Kshs

2. Land Preparation:

  • Plowing, tilling, and leveling: 8,000 – 12,000 Kshs

3. Fertilizers and Soil Amendments:

  • Fertilizers (NPK, micronutrients, etc.): 8,000 – 12,000 Kshs

4. Pesticides and Disease Management:

  • Pesticides and fungicides: 5,000 – 8,000 Kshs

5. Labor:

  • Planting, weeding, irrigation, and harvesting labor: 20,000 – 30,000 Kshs

6. Irrigation:

  • Drip irrigation setup and maintenance: 15,000 – 20,000 Kshs

7. Miscellaneous Expenses:

  • Fuel, transportation, tools, equipment maintenance, etc.: 5,000 – 8,000 Kshs

8. Post-Harvest Handling:

  • Sorting, packaging, and transportation to market: 5,000 – 10,000 Kshs

9. Overheads:

  • Administrative and management expenses: 5,000 – 10,000 Kshs

Total Estimated Expenses: Approximate total expenses: 91,000 – 125,000 Kshs

These expenses are meant to provide a general overview and can vary based on specific circumstances. Additionally, costs related to land rental, interest on loans, and other factors should also be considered.

Assumptions:

  • Production per acre: 4800 kgs (minimum) to 8500 kgs (maximum)
  • Selling price per kg: 50 Kshs (minimum) to 100 Kshs (maximum)
  • Total Estimated Expenses: 91,000 – 125,000 Kshs

1. Minimum Production (4800 kgs) and Selling Price (50 Kshs/kg):

  • Total Revenue = 4800 kgs × 50 Kshs/kg = 240,000 Kshs
  • Total Expenses = 91,000 Kshs (minimum estimate)
  • Profit = Total Revenue – Total Expenses = 240,000 Kshs – 91,000 Kshs = 149,000 Kshs

2. Maximum Production (8500 kgs) and Selling Price (100 Kshs/kg):

  • Total Revenue = 8500 kgs × 100 Kshs/kg = 850,000 Kshs
  • Total Expenses = 125,000 Kshs (maximum estimate)
  • Profit = Total Revenue – Total Expenses = 850,000 Kshs – 125,000 Kshs = 725,000 Kshs

Therefore expected profits on an acre of French beans in Kenya is between 149,000 – 725,000 Kshs.

Please note that these calculations are based on the provided estimates for expenses and the given production and selling price ranges. Actual profitability can vary depending on various factors, including actual expenses incurred, yield achieved, market conditions, and unforeseen challenges.

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Farmers should conduct a detailed cost analysis using their actual expenses to determine the specific profitability of their French beans farming venture. Keeping accurate records of expenses and income will enable them to make informed decisions and optimize their production practices for better financial outcomes.

Post-harvest handling

  •  The harvested pods should be carefully placed in clean plastic containers and protected from direct sun.
  • The containers should be covered with moist clean cloths (preferably white cotton) to maintain low temperatures.
  •  In cases of soiled pods, clean by immersing them in clean water and handle gently to avoid bruises.
  • The pods should be taken to the grading shed (or put under shade) and sorted out to remove broken, malformed, overgrown, off-types and insect damaged pods.

Grading

  • French beans intended for marketing should meet the following minimum quality requirements:
  • Beans should be intact, sound, of fresh appearance, clean and free from excess external moisture
  • Beans should be of specified size and of such a state as to enable produce to with stand transport and handling so as to meet market requirements at the destination.
  •  Extra fine pods should be very tender, turgid, seedless, with no strings, and free from any defects. The width of the pods (maximum diameter) should be less than 6 mm and the minimum length of 10cm.
  • The fine pods may have small seeds and be short with soft strings, be turgid and tender. The width of the pods should be between 6-9 mm while the length of 12-l4 cm is recommended.
  • Bobby beans comprise beans of marketable quality which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. Beans should be reasonably tender and seeds should not be too large.
  • N/B: In all grades, the pods should have the characteristic size and colour of its variety.

Packaging, Pre-cooling and Transportation

  • The pods are packaged in corrugated fiberboard cartons of 3 kg gross weight or in plastic pre-packs weighing 250,500 or 1,000gm.
  • The pods are pre-cooled to remove field heat. This is done at 7-80C (using forced air coolers). The beans can be stored at 7 to 80C and a relative humidity of 95­-100% for up
  • The cartons should be carefully stacked during transportation to reduce movement of cartons and allow free movement of air. Insulated or refrigerated vehicles should be used for transportation of french beans.

Post harvest diseases

  • White mold can infest pods just before harvesting and cause damage to the crop during storage and transportation. This can lead to loss of an entire shipment. The losses are highest at temperature between 18 and 240C.
  • Hydro cooling of beans in chlorine water after sorting and maintaining temperatures in shipping container at 3.3-4.4 0C helps reduces the post-harvest losses.

Advice to Potential French Beans Growers In Kenya

  • With continued demand for the beans being recognized, export companies are going into contract farming with farmers. This involves setting of fixed prices that run throughout the year whether the season is low or high.
  • Due to high labour requirements it is recommended that it is grown on a small scale, possibly with staggered planting so that a manageable proportion of the crop is ready for picking at any one time and that harvesting is continuous. For instance, the land may be divided into convenient sized plots (i.e. ¼ acre plots) and planted at 2-3 weeks intervals.
  • Growing these beans requires a lot of dedication and capital especially for the high season. The most sensitive stages in production include; germination, flowering, fruiting and harvesting.

Buyers Of French Beans In Kenya

A major outlet for these French beans is the European Union market. The export market in Kenya falls into two major seasons:

The low demand season runs mostly from June to September every year. It is characterized by lots of supply from those who produce with the long rains and low demand from the EU market as they can produce their own by then.

french beans market in kenya

The high demand season usually runs from September to around March. During this period, EU markets are faced with winter and their only option is to import and that is when Kenyan farmers benefit from production.

1. Vegpro Kenya

Contact: 020 552 506.

2. Kenya Horticultural Exports Limited

Contacts: 0703 471 417, 020 251 7979.

3. French Produce Exports Association

Contact: 0713 516 555.

4. Homegrown Kenya Ltd

Contact: 020 387 3800.

5. Everest Limited

Contacts: 020 314 2009/ 020 622 4142.

Common Pests and Diseases Of French Beans Farming In Kenya

Here are some of the common pests and diseases that can affect French beans farming in Kenya:

Common Pests:

  1. Aphids (Aphis spp.): Aphids are small, sap-sucking insects that can distort plant growth, cause leaf curling, and transmit viruses. They reproduce rapidly and can lead to significant damage if left unchecked.
  2. Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci): Whiteflies are tiny insects that feed on plant sap, causing yellowing, wilting, and the development of sooty mold. They are also known to transmit plant viruses.
  3. Thrips (Frankliniella spp.): Thrips damage plants by piercing the leaves and sucking out the cell contents. This results in silvering, stippling, and deformation of leaves, affecting the overall health of the plant.
  4. Bean Fly (Ophiomyia spp.): The bean fly larvae tunnel into stems and pods, causing galls and reduced pod development. Infested pods can be deformed and unmarketable.

Common Diseases:

  1. Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum): Bacterial wilt is a destructive disease that causes wilting, yellowing, and eventual death of plants. It can spread rapidly through contaminated soil, water, or equipment.
  2. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.): Anthracnose affects leaves, stems, and pods, causing dark lesions with distinct margins. It can lead to reduced yield and poor pod quality.
  3. Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus): Rust appears as orange-brown pustules on leaves, leading to reduced photosynthesis and stunted plant growth. Severe infestations can cause defoliation.
  4. Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe spp.): Powdery mildew appears as white powdery spots on leaves, stems, and pods. It can lead to reduced photosynthesis, decreased yield, and poor pod quality.
  5. Downy Mildew (Peronospora spp.): Downy mildew causes yellowing of leaves on the upper surface and a purplish growth on the lower surface. It can result in defoliation and reduced yield.
  6. Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum): Fusarium wilt causes wilting and yellowing of leaves, with vascular discoloration in the stem. It can lead to plant death and reduced yield.

Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM):

To manage these pests and diseases effectively, farmers can adopt integrated pest and disease management strategies, which include:

  • Crop rotation
  • Use of disease-resistant varieties
  • Proper spacing and plant density
  • Early detection and monitoring
  • Cultural practices (sanitation, removal of infected plant material)
  • Biological control (predators and parasites)
  • Chemical control (using approved pesticides judiciously)
  • Application of fungicides and insecticides as needed, following recommended guidelines

Regular scouting, timely action, and a combination of these strategies can help minimize the impact of pests and diseases on French beans production and contribute to higher yields and better-quality produce.

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FAQs

**1. Q: What are French beans? A: French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are leguminous vegetables with slender, edible pods. They are also known as snap beans or green beans.

**2. Q: What is the best season to plant French beans in Kenya? A: French beans can be planted during the rainy seasons or with supplemental irrigation. Planting is often done from February to April and from August to October.

**3. Q: What are the key agro-climatic requirements for French beans farming? A: French beans thrive in warm temperatures (18°C to 27°C) and require full sun exposure. Well-drained sandy loam soils with a pH of 6.0 to 7.5 are ideal.

**4. Q: How long does it take for French beans to mature? A: French beans typically mature and are ready for harvest within 60 to 90 days after planting, depending on the variety and growing conditions.

**5. Q: What are the common pests and diseases that affect French beans farming in Kenya? A: Common pests include aphids, whiteflies, and bean fly, while diseases include bacterial wilt, anthracnose, rust, and powdery mildew.

**6. Q: How can I prevent and manage pest and disease problems in French beans farming? A: Integrated pest and disease management (IPM) practices, such as crop rotation, use of disease-resistant varieties, and proper hygiene, can help manage these issues.

**7. Q: What is the recommended spacing for planting French beans? A: Bush beans are typically spaced 15-20 cm apart in rows with 60-75 cm between rows, while climbing (pole) beans need vertical supports and can be spaced similarly.

**8. Q: Can I use organic fertilizers for French beans farming? A: Yes, organic fertilizers such as compost, manure, and other natural sources can be used to enhance soil fertility.

**9. Q: How often should French beans be irrigated? A: Regular and consistent irrigation is important, especially during flowering and pod development. Drip irrigation is often recommended.

**10. Q: What are the common varieties of French beans grown in Kenya? A: Common varieties include Mavuno F1, Amy F1, Pencil Pod (Kenya Improved), Saxa F1, Paulista (Helda) F1, and Top Crop F1.

**11. Q: Can I save seeds from my French beans for the next planting season? A: While it is possible to save seeds, it’s important to use disease-free and high-quality seeds for optimal yields. Commercially produced seeds are often recommended.

**12. Q: What is the potential yield of French beans per acre? A: French beans have a potential yield ranging from 4800 kgs to 8500 kgs per acre, depending on factors like variety, management, and agro-climatic conditions.

**13. Q: How can I prepare the soil for French beans planting? A: Proper land preparation involves plowing, tilling, and leveling the soil to create a suitable seedbed.

**14. Q: Are French beans suitable for both domestic consumption and export markets? A: Yes, French beans are popular in both local markets and for export due to their high demand and nutritional value.

**15. Q: How can I control weeds in my French beans farm? A: Weeds can be controlled through proper land preparation, mulching, and manual weeding. Herbicides can also be used judiciously.

**16. Q: Can I intercrop French beans with other crops? A: Yes, French beans can be intercropped with compatible crops like maize or onions to maximize land use and diversify income.

**17. Q: What post-harvest practices should I follow for French beans? A: Prompt harvesting, proper handling, and timely cooling are essential to maintain the quality and shelf life of harvested French beans.

**18. Q: How do I market my French beans produce? A: Establishing links with local markets, exporters, and supermarkets, as well as participating in farmer cooperatives, can help you market your French beans.

**19. Q: Are there any government programs or initiatives to support French beans farmers? A: Yes, the Kenyan government and agricultural agencies provide training, access to credit, and extension services to support French beans farming.

**20. Q: What are the key factors for successful French beans farming in Kenya? A: Success factors include selecting appropriate varieties, proper land preparation, effective pest and disease management, timely irrigation, and post-harvest handling practices.

More on FAQs

  1. How many kgs of French beans can an acre produce? According to Farmers Trend, the yield of French beans can vary widely depending on factors such as variety, growing conditions, and management practices. On average, French beans can produce around 4800 to 8500 kgs per acre.
  2. Is French beans farming profitable? According to Farmers Trend, French beans farming can be profitable, especially when proper management practices are employed. Market demand, yield, and production costs are key factors that influence profitability.
  3. How many seeds of French beans per acre? According to Farmers Trend, the number of seeds planted per acre can vary based on factors such as seed size and spacing. On average, about 20,000 to 25,000 seeds per acre are commonly used.
  4. How much is French beans seeds per kg in Kenya? According to Farmers Trend, the cost of French beans seeds per kg in Kenya can vary based on the variety and supplier. On average, it can range from around 300 Kshs to 500 Kshs per kg.
  5. How many kgs of beans do I need to plant in an acre? According to Farmers Trend, the number of kgs of beans needed to plant an acre depends on the variety, spacing, and planting density. As a rough estimate, about 10-15 kgs of seeds may be required per acre.
  6. How much does it cost to grow French beans in Kenya? According to Farmers Trend, the cost of growing French beans in Kenya can vary based on factors such as seed cost, land preparation, irrigation, fertilizers, pest control, labor, and more. Estimated costs can range from 90,000 Kshs to 125,000 Kshs per acre, but actual costs may differ.
  7. How much is French beans in Kenya? According to Farmers Trend, the price of French beans in Kenya can vary based on market demand, quality, and other factors. Prices may range from around 50 Kshs to 100 Kshs per kg or even higher, depending on the market and season.
  8. How much do French beans farming yield in Kenya? According to Farmers Trend, French beans yield in Kenya can vary widely based on various factors. On average, yields can range from about 4800 kgs to 850

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