Bee farming, also known as apiculture, is an ancient practice that has gained popularity in recent times in Kenya due to its numerous economic benefits. It involves the rearing of honeybees for honey, beeswax, and other bee products. Bee farming is a lucrative venture that is gradually gaining momentum among smallholder farmers in Kenya. In this blog post, we shall explore the different aspects of bee farming in Kenya.

bee farming in kenya 2023

Benefits of Bee Farming in Kenya

Bee farming in Kenya has numerous benefits, both to the farmers and the environment. Some of the benefits include:

  1. Honey Production In Kenya

Honey is the primary product of bee farming. Honey is a nutritious and delicious food that is widely consumed in Kenya and globally. Honey has various health benefits, including improving digestion, providing energy, and boosting the immune system. The demand for honey in Kenya is high, making bee farming a profitable venture.

  1. Beeswax Production in Kenya

Beeswax is another essential product of bee farming. Beeswax is used in the manufacture of various products, including candles, lip balms, and skin care products. The demand for beeswax in Kenya is also high, creating a lucrative market for bee farmers.

  1. Pollination

Bees play a crucial role in pollination, which is essential for the growth of crops and plants. Bee farming, therefore, promotes crop growth and increases agricultural productivity.

  1. Environmental Conservation

Bee farming promotes environmental conservation since bees help in pollinating flowers and trees, thus promoting the growth of forests and vegetation. Bee farming also encourages the preservation of natural habitats since bees require natural habitats to thrive.

Challenges of Bee Farming in Kenya

Bee farming in Kenya faces numerous challenges that hinder its growth and profitability. Some of the challenges include:

  1. Pests and Diseases

Bee farming is susceptible to various pests and diseases that can significantly affect the health and productivity of the bees. Some of the pests and diseases that affect bee farming in Kenya include Varroa mites, wax moths, and American foulbrood.

  1. Lack of Proper Beekeeping Equipment

Bee farming requires specific equipment, including hives, protective gear, and beekeeping tools. Most smallholder farmers in Kenya lack access to these tools and equipment, making it challenging to venture into bee farming.

  1. Lack of Knowledge and Skills

Most smallholder farmers lack adequate knowledge and skills on bee farming, including hive management, bee health, and honey harvesting. This lack of knowledge and skills affects the productivity and profitability of bee farming.

How to Start Bee Farming in Kenya

Starting bee farming in Kenya requires adequate planning, resources, and knowledge. Here are the steps to follow when starting bee farming in Kenya:

  1. Conduct Market Research

Before venturing into bee farming, conduct market research to determine the demand and prices of bee products in your locality. This information will help you make informed decisions on what products to produce and the target market.

  1. Acquire Beekeeping Equipment

Acquire the necessary beekeeping equipment, including hives, protective gear, and beekeeping tools. These tools and equipment can be purchased from beekeeping equipment suppliers in Kenya.

  1. Identify a Suitable Site

Identify a suitable site for bee farming, which should be away from human activity and pollution. The site should have access to water, be well-drained, and have ample vegetation for bees to forage.

  1. Acquire Bees

Acquire bees from reputable bee breeders or catch wild swarms. It is advisable to start with a small number of bees and increase gradually as you gain experience and knowledge.

  1. Manage Your Hives

Proper hive management is essential for the health and quality of honey

  1. Provide Adequate Feeding

Bees require a constant supply of food to produce honey and other bee products. In areas with limited vegetation, bee farmers should provide their bees with supplementary feeding to ensure optimal productivity.

  1. Monitor Bee Health

Regular monitoring of bee health is crucial in identifying and controlling pests and diseases that can affect the productivity of the bees. Bee farmers should conduct routine inspections and seek advice from experts when necessary.

  1. Harvest and Market Your Bee Products

Harvesting and marketing your bee products is the final step in bee farming. Harvesting should be done carefully to avoid damaging the honeycombs and injuring the bees. After harvesting, the honey and beeswax should be properly packaged and labeled for sale. Bee farmers can sell their products directly to consumers or through intermediaries, such as honey traders and supermarkets.

In addition to the steps outlined above, bee farmers in Kenya can also consider joining beekeeping associations or groups. These groups offer training, support, and networking opportunities for bee farmers, which can help them to overcome the challenges of bee farming and improve their productivity and profitability.

Moreover, bee farming in Kenya can also be integrated with other forms of agriculture, such as crop farming and livestock keeping. This integration can promote the growth of crops and increase the productivity of livestock through improved pollination and increased forage availability.

To promote the growth of bee farming in Kenya, the government and other stakeholders can provide support to smallholder farmers in the form of subsidized beekeeping equipment, training, and access to finance. This support can help smallholder farmers to venture into bee farming and improve their livelihoods.

In conclusion, bee farming in Kenya is a profitable venture that has numerous benefits to the environment and the economy. Despite the challenges faced by bee farmers in Kenya, the potential for growth and profitability in this sector is significant. By following the steps outlined above and acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills, smallholder farmers can venture into bee farming and enjoy the economic benefits that come with it.

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Species Of Bees In Kenya

In Kenya, there are two main types of honeybees – the African bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) and the European bee (Apis mellifera). These two species of honeybees differ in their behavior, physical characteristics, and management requirements.

  1. African Bee (Apis mellifera scutellata): Also known as the Africanized bee, this bee species is known for its aggressiveness and defensive behavior. They are highly adaptable to different environments, which makes them well suited for beekeeping in Kenya’s tropical climate. However, their aggressive behavior requires more management and safety measures, and they tend to swarm more frequently.
  2. European Bee (Apis mellifera): This bee species is known for its docile behavior and easy management. They are less prone to swarming and are better suited for areas with large tracts of farmland. European bees are commonly used in commercial beekeeping operations, where large numbers of hives are managed for honey production.

In addition to these two main species, there are also other subspecies of honeybees found in Kenya, such as the Kenyan bee (Apis mellifera monticola), which is a highland bee that is well adapted to cold and wet conditions, and the Egyptian bee (Apis mellifera lamarckii), which is found in the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya.

It’s worth noting that beekeeping in Kenya is predominantly done using the African bee, due to its high adaptability to the country’s tropical climate. However, some beekeepers may also use European bees in certain areas where they can thrive. Ultimately, the choice of bee species will depend on the beekeeper’s resources, location, and management requirements.

Common Bee Keeping Equipments In Kenya

Beekeeping in Kenya requires a few basic tools and equipment to manage the hives and harvest honey. Here are some common beekeeping equipment used in Kenya: bee farming equipments in kenya

  1. Hives: Hives are the homes for the bees and come in different types such as Langstroth, top bar, and Kenyan top bar hives. Each type of hive has its advantages and disadvantages. Langstroth hives are the most common in Kenya, while top bar hives are popular among small-scale beekeepers.
  2. Bee smoker: This is a tool used to calm the bees during hive inspections. It generates smoke that masks the alarm pheromones released by the bees, making them less aggressive.
  3. Bee suit: A bee suit is worn by beekeepers to protect them from bee stings during hive inspections and honey harvesting. It comprises a full-body suit with a veil, gloves, and boots.
  4. Hive tool: A hive tool is used to pry apart the hive components and scrape off wax and propolis.
  5. Honey extractor: A honey extractor is used to extract honey from the combs. It works by spinning the frames to remove the honey without damaging the comb.
  6. Uncapping knife: This is a heated knife used to remove the wax caps from the honeycomb cells, allowing the honey to flow out during extraction.
  7. Feeder: In times of low nectar flow, beekeepers may need to supplement the bees’ food with sugar syrup. A feeder is used to dispense the sugar syrup into the hive.
  8. Bee brush: This is a soft-bristled brush used to gently brush bees off the comb during inspections or harvesting.
  9. Queen excluder: This is a wire mesh that is placed between the brood box and honey super to prevent the queen from laying eggs in the honey super.
  10. Wax foundation: Wax foundation is used to provide a base for the bees to build their honeycomb. It comprises thin sheets of beeswax that are embossed with hexagonal shapes.

These are some of the common beekeeping equipment used in Kenya. The choice of equipment will depend on the beekeeper’s budget, experience, and specific needs.

Best beehives In Kenya

In Kenya, there are several types of bee hives used in beekeeping, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The choice of bee hive will depend on factors such as cost, availability, and management practices. Here are some of the most popular bee hives used in Kenya:

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  1. Langstroth hives: These hives are rectangular in shape and consist of a series of boxes stacked on top of each other. The frames are removable, allowing beekeepers to inspect the hives and harvest honey easily. Langstroth hives are popular among commercial beekeepers due to their high honey production and easy management.
  2. Top bar hives: These hives have a long, horizontal top bar on which the bees build their comb. The top bars are removable, allowing for easy honey harvesting. Top bar hives are popular among small-scale beekeepers due to their low cost and simple construction.
  3. Kenyan top bar hives: These hives are similar to top bar hives but have sloping sides that allow for better ventilation and temperature control. Kenyan top bar hives are popular among small-scale beekeepers due to their ease of construction and low cost.
  4. KTBH (Kenya Top Bar Hive) Langstroth Hybrid: This hive is a hybrid of the Langstroth and Kenyan top bar hives. It has the frame system of the Langstroth hive but with the top bars of the Kenyan top bar hive. The KTBH Langstroth Hybrid combines the advantages of both hives, making it popular among beekeepers in Kenya.
  5. Log hives: These hives are made from hollowed-out logs and are popular among traditional beekeepers in rural areas. Log hives are low cost and easy to construct but are difficult to manage and harvest honey.
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Ultimately, the choice of bee hive will depend on the beekeeper’s resources, experience, and management practices. Each type of hive has its advantages and disadvantages, and beekeepers in Kenya may use a combination of hives to suit their specific needs.

Cost Of Bee Production In Kenya

The cost of production for bee farming in Kenya can vary depending on several factors such as the scale of the operation, location, and management practices. However, there are some common costs associated with bee farming that smallholder farmers in Kenya can expect to incur.

  1. Hive Construction: The cost of constructing a single beehive can range from Ksh. 1,500 to Ksh. 4,000, depending on the material used. Alternatively, beekeepers can opt to purchase ready-made hives, which can cost between Ksh. 4,000 to Ksh. 10,000.
  2. Bees: The cost of purchasing bees varies depending on the region, but a colony of bees can cost between Ksh. 5,000 to Ksh. 20,000.
  3. Protective Gear: Beekeepers require protective gear such as suits, gloves, and veils to prevent bee stings during hive inspections and honey harvesting. The cost of protective gear can range from Ksh. 4,000 to Ksh. 20,000.
  4. Feeding: In areas with limited vegetation, bee farmers may need to provide their bees with supplementary feeding. The cost of feeding depends on the type of feed used, but it can range from Ksh. 1,000 to Ksh. 6,000 per month.
  5. Pest and Disease Control: Beekeepers need to control pests and diseases that can affect the health and productivity of their bees. The cost of pest and disease control can vary depending on the method used and the severity of the infestation.
  6. Labor: Depending on the scale of the operation, beekeepers may require labor to manage their hives, especially during peak seasons such as honey harvesting. The cost of labor varies depending on the region and the type of labor required.
  7. Marketing: Bee farmers need to market their products to generate income. The cost of marketing can range from Ksh. 500 to Ksh. 5,000 per month, depending on the marketing strategy used.

The cost of production for bee farming in Kenya can vary depending on several factors. However, with proper planning, management, and support, smallholder farmers can venture into bee farming and enjoy the economic benefits that come with it.

Profitability Of Bee Farming In Kenya

Bee farming in Kenya can be a profitable venture for smallholder farmers, provided that they employ good management practices and have access to markets for their products. Honey, beeswax, pollen, and propolis are some of the bee products that can generate income for beekeepers.

According to the Beekeeping Development in Kenya report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), beekeeping has the potential to generate significant income for smallholder farmers. The report estimates that a single colony of bees can produce between 10-20kg of honey per year, which can be sold for between Ksh. 800 to Ksh. 2,200 per kg, depending on the quality.

Assuming a conservative production estimate of 10kg per colony and a selling price of Ksh. 800 per kg, a beekeeper with 10 hives can earn Ksh. 80,000 per year from honey sales alone. In addition to honey, other bee products such as beeswax, propolis, and pollen can also generate income for beekeepers.

Moreover, bee farming can also have indirect benefits for smallholder farmers, such as increased crop yields and improved soil fertility through improved pollination. Bee farming can also promote biodiversity and contribute to the conservation of natural habitats.

However, bee farming in Kenya also faces several challenges that can affect profitability, such as pests and diseases, limited access to markets, and lack of knowledge and skills among beekeepers. Nonetheless, with proper training, support, and access to markets, bee farming can be a profitable and sustainable enterprise for smallholder farmers in Kenya.

Things To Consider On Bee Farming In Kenya

Bee farming in Kenya can be a rewarding venture for smallholder farmers, but there are several things to consider before starting a beekeeping operation. Here are some important factors to keep in mind:

  1. Location: The location of the bee farm is critical to the success of the operation. Bee farms should be situated in areas with abundant floral resources, away from potential sources of contamination such as industries and chemical plants.
  2. Hive type: There are several types of hives that beekeepers can use, including Langstroth, top bar, and Kenyan top bar hives. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages, and beekeepers should choose a hive that suits their needs and resources.
  3. Bee species: In Kenya, there are two types of honeybees – the African bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) and the European bee (Apis mellifera). African bees are more aggressive and require more management than European bees. Beekeepers should choose a bee species that is best suited for their location and resources.
  4. Management practices: Proper hive management is critical to the success of a beekeeping operation. Beekeepers should regularly inspect their hives, control pests and diseases, and provide supplementary feeding when necessary.
  5. Market access: Before starting a beekeeping operation, beekeepers should identify potential markets for their products, such as honey, beeswax, propolis, and pollen. Beekeepers can sell their products directly to consumers, through farmer cooperatives, or to honey processors.
  6. Training and support: Beekeeping requires knowledge and skills in hive management, pest and disease control, and product marketing. Beekeepers can benefit from attending training programs and joining beekeeping associations that provide support and networking opportunities.
  7. Regulations: Beekeeping in Kenya is regulated by the government through the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) and the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). Beekeepers should ensure that they comply with all regulations, including registration and licensing requirements.
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Bee farming in Kenya can be a profitable and sustainable venture for smallholder farmers, provided that they consider the above factors and employ good management practices.

Honey Market In Kenya

The honey market in Kenya has been growing steadily in recent years, driven by rising demand for honey both locally and internationally. Honey is a natural sweetener and has several health benefits, making it a popular alternative to sugar. Here are some key points about the honey market in Kenya:

  1. Domestic demand: Kenya has a large domestic market for honey, with an estimated annual consumption of 100,000 metric tonnes. Honey is used for culinary and medicinal purposes and is also exported to other countries in the region.
  2. Export market: Kenya’s honey industry is export-oriented, with several honey processing companies exporting to countries such as the United States, Japan, and Europe. The main export markets for Kenyan honey are the United States and Japan, which together account for over 70% of the country’s honey exports.
  3. Value chain: The honey value chain in Kenya is dominated by small-scale producers who produce about 80% of the country’s honey. These producers face several challenges such as low productivity, poor market access, and limited access to finance.
  4. Processing: The honey processing industry in Kenya is still in its early stages, with only a few companies engaged in large-scale honey processing. Most of the honey produced in Kenya is sold in its raw form, with little or no value addition.
  5. Price: The price of honey in Kenya varies depending on factors such as quality, packaging, and market demand. On average, a kilogram of honey retails for between Kshs. 400 and Kshs. 1500 in local markets, while export prices are higher due to quality standards and logistics costs.

The honey market in Kenya is growing, with rising demand both domestically and internationally. However, there is a need for more investment in the honey value chain to improve productivity, quality, and market access for small-scale producers. With the right policies and investments, the honey industry in Kenya has the potential to become a major contributor to the country’s economy.

Common Bee Diseases In Kenya

Bee diseases are a common challenge that beekeepers face. Some of the common bee diseases in Kenya include:

  1. American Foulbrood (AFB): This is a bacterial disease that affects the brood (developing bees) of the colony. The infected larvae turn brown and emit a foul odor. AFB is highly infectious and can lead to the collapse of the colony. The recommended treatment for AFB is to burn the infected hive and its contents.
  2. European Foulbrood (EFB): This is also a bacterial disease that affects the brood of the colony. Unlike AFB, the larvae infected with EFB turn yellow and die before pupation. EFB is less infectious than AFB, and the colony can recover if the disease is caught early. The recommended treatment for EFB is to requeen the colony and use antibiotics to control the spread of the disease.
  3. Varroa mite infestation: Varroa mites are external parasites that feed on the blood of adult bees and brood. They weaken the bees’ immune system and can transmit viruses, leading to colony collapse. Varroa mites can be controlled using chemical treatments, mechanical methods such as drone trapping, or biological control methods.
  4. Nosema: This is a fungal disease that affects adult bees. It affects the digestive system of the bees, leading to reduced lifespan and poor colony health. Nosema can be controlled using antifungal treatments and good hive hygiene practices.
  5. Wax moth infestation: Wax moths are a common pest that attacks the wax combs of the colony. They destroy the combs and weaken the colony’s ability to store honey and raise brood. Wax moths can be controlled using mechanical methods such as freezing or heating the combs or using chemical treatments.

Beekeepers can prevent the spread of diseases by practicing good hive hygiene, regular inspection, and monitoring of the colony’s health. It is also essential to use disease-free bees and equipment, and to seek professional help if the colony shows signs of disease.

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